Papers with references to CRD 2010-2018


1.[HTML] High-energy atmospheric physics: Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and related phenomena

JR Dwyer, DM Smith, SA Cummer - Space Science Reviews, 2012 - Springer
Abstract It is now well established that both thunderclouds and lightning routinely emit x-rays 
and gamma-rays. These emissions appear over wide timescales, ranging from sub-
microsecond bursts of x-rays associated with lightning leaders, to sub-millisecond bursts ...

2.Strong flux of low-energy neutrons produced by thunderstorms

AV Gurevich, VP Antonova, AP Chubenko… - Physical review …, 2012 - APS
We report here for the first time about the registration of an extraordinary high flux of low-
energy neutrons generated during thunderstorms. The measured neutron count rate 
enhancements are directly connected with thunderstorm discharges. The low-energy ...

3.Long‐duration γ ray emissions from 2007 and 2008 winter thunderstorms

H Tsuchiya, T Enoto, S Yamada, T Yuasa… - Journal of Geophysical …, 2011 -
[1] The Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds (GROWTH) experiment, 
consisting of two radiation detection subsystems, has been operating since 2006 on the 
premises of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa nuclear power plant located at the coastal area of Japan ...

4.Observation of thundercloud-related gamma rays and neutrons in Tibet

H Tsuchiya, K Hibino, K Kawata, N Hotta, N Tateyama… - Physical Review D, 2012 - APS
Recent observations have shown that thunderclouds are powerful particle accelerators, 
emitting bremsstrahlung rays that extend to 10 MeV or higher [1–7]. Unlike terrestrial gamma-
ray flashes (TGFs) and lightning-related rays, which last for milliseconds or less, ...

5.High-energy photons connected to atmospheric precipitations.

AV Germanenko, YV Balabin… - … & Space Sciences …, 2011 -
Abstract Increases in intensity of X-radiation in the ground layer of the atmosphere observed 
during various atmospheric phenomena in two points: Apatity (Kola Peninsula) and 
Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. A clear relationship between the increases ...

6.Observation of a gamma‐ray flash at ground level in association with a cloud‐to‐ground lightning return stroke

JR Dwyer, MM Schaal, E Cramer, S Arabshahi… - Journal of Geophysical …, 2012 -
Dwyer, JR, MM Schaal, E. Cramer, S. Arabshahi, N. Liu, HK Rassoul, JD Hill, DM Jordan, 
and MA Uman (2012), Observation of a gamma-ray flash at ground level in association with 
a cloud-to-ground lightning return stroke, J. Geophys. Res., 117, A10303, doi: 10.1029/ ...

7.Observation of the avalanche of runaway electrons in air in a strong electric field

AV Gurevich, GA Mesyats, KP Zybin, MI Yalandin… - Physical review …, 2012 - APS
The generation of an avalanche of runaway electrons is demonstrated for the first time in a 
laboratory experiment. Two flows of runaway electrons are formed sequentially in an 
extended air discharge gap at the stage of delay of a pulsed breakdown. The first, ...

8.First experimental observations of neutron bursts under thunderstorm clouds near sea level

SA Starodubtsev, VI Kozlov, AA Toropov… - JETP letters, 2012 - Springer
Abstract The connection of short-term neutron bursts near sea level with the electric and 
geomagnetic atmospheric fields during thunderstorms in 2009–2011 has been 
experimentally studied. The data from the cosmic-ray spectrograph named after Kuzmin, ...

9.[PDF] Variability of Low Energy 2 Cosmic Rays Near Earth 3

K Kudela - 2012 -
Almost a century ago Victor Hess in his balloon experiments discovered cosmic rays (Hess, 
9 1912). The history in understanding the nature, physical mechanisms affecting the 
temporal 10 and spatial variability of cosmic rays (CR) observed on the ground and within ...

10.On amplifications of photonuclear neutron flux in thunderstorm atmosphere and possibility of detecting them

LP Babich, EI Bochkov, IM Kutsyk, AN Zalyalov - JETP letters, 2013 - Springer
Abstract The reliability of communications reporting observations of neutron flux 
enhancements in thunderstorm atmosphere is analyzed. The analysis is motivated by the 
fact that the employed gas-discharge counters on the basis of reactions 3 He (n, p) 3 H ...

11.Assessment of thunderstorm neutron radiation environment at altitudes of aviation flights

A Drozdov, A Grigoriev… - Journal of Geophysical …, 2013 - Wiley Online Library
Abstract [1] High-energy radiation emitted from thunderclouds supposes generation of 
neutrons in photonuclear reactions of the gamma photons with air. This observation is 
supported by registration of neutrons during thunderstorm activity in a number of ...
by 2 Related articles All 6 versions Cite Save

12.The physics of lightning

JR Dwyer, MA Uman - Physics Reports, 2013 - Elsevier
Abstract Despite being one of the most familiar and widely recognized natural phenomena, 
lightning remains relatively poorly understood. Even the most basic questions of how 
lightning is initiated inside thunderclouds and how it then propagates for many tens of ...

13.Numerical analysis of 2010 high‐mountain (Tien‐Shan) experiment on observations of thunderstorm‐related low‐energy neutron emissions

LP Babich, E Bochkov, JR Dwyer… - Journal of …, 2013 - Wiley Online Library
Abstract [1] The high-mountain experiment in a thunderstorm atmosphere, in which 
“extraordinary high flux of low-energy neutrons” was detected, is analyzed. Due to the lack of 
data on the radiation source, we do not analyze directly measured absolute count rates. ...

14 [PDF] Об усилении потока фотоядерных нейтронов в грозовой атмосфере и возможности его регистрации

ЛП Бабич, ЕИ Бочков, АН Залялов, ИM Куцык - Письма в ЖЭТФ, 2013 -
Анализируется достоверность сообщений о регистрации усиления потока нейтронов в 
грозовой атмосфере. Анализ мотивирован тем, что используемые газоразрядные 
счетчики на основе реакций 3He (n, p) 3H и 10B (n; 4He, γ) 7Li детектируют не только ...


15.[PDF] Correlation between cosmic ray flux and electric atmospheric field variations with the ARGO-YBJ experiment

Abstract: ARGO-YBJ is an extensive air shower detector located at Yangbajing (Tibet, 
China) at 4300 m asl. It is made by a full coverage carpet plus a guard ring (total surface∼ 
6700 m2) of Resistive Plate Chambers grouped into 153 units called clusters. The ...

16.Analysis of thunderstorm neutron fluxes in the generation region and at orbital altitudes

AY Drozdov, AV Grigoriev - Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences: …, 2013 - Springer
Abstract Thunderstorm neutron generation and transport are modeled using the known 
properties of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. The spectra of the neutron fluxes in the 
generation area and at orbital altitudes are analyzed and compared to the neutron albedo ...

17.Neutrons from thunderstorms at low atmospheric altitudes and related doses at aircraft

A Drozdov, A Grigoriev - Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2013 -
Abstract. We conduct a simulation of thunderstorm neutron flashes at the lowest atmospheric 
altitudes below 10 km. The neutron generation mechanism is based on the nowadays 
conventional idea of possibility for photonuclear reactions to proceed on the atmospheric ...

18.[PDF] Experimental Study of Variation of Secondary Cosmic Gamma Ray Flux during Total Lunar Eclipse April 4, 1996 and July 16, 2000

P Devendra, SNA Jaaffrey - Research Journal of Physical Sciences … -
Abstract We report the observations of variation of secondary cosmic gamma ray flux near 
2.57 MeV energy during April 4, 1996 Total Lunar Eclipse and energies near 1.31 MeV, 
1.618 MeV, 2.57 MeV during July 16, 2000 Total Lunar Eclipse. For our experimental ...

19.Surrounding material effect on measurement of thunderstorm-related neutrons

H Tsuchiya - Astroparticle Physics, 2014 - Elsevier
Abstract Observations of strong flux of low-energy neutrons were made by 3 He 3 He 
counters during thunderstorms [Gurevich et al (Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 125001, 2012)]. How 
the unprecedented enhancements were produced remains elusive. To better elucidate the ...

20.[PDF] Neutrons from thunderstorms at low atmospheric altitudes

A Drozdov, A Grigoriev -
Abstract. Distribution of thunderstorm neutrons at low atmospheric altitudes (> 10 km) was 
modeled using the Monte-Carlo method. The neutron generation mechanism is based on 
the nowadays conventional idea of possibility for photonuclear reactions to proceed on ...

21.Possible effects on avionics induced by terrestrial gamma-ray flashes.

M Tavani, A Argan, A Paccagnella… - Natural Hazards & …, 2013 -
Abstract Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are impulsive (intrinsically sub-millisecond) 
events associated with lightning in powerful thunderstorms. TGFs turn out to be very 
powerful natural accelerators known to accelerate particles and generate radiation up to ...

22.Ion runaway in lightning discharges

T Fülöp, M Landreman - Physical review letters, 2013 - APS
Runaway ions can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields, where the accelerating 
electric force is augmented by the low mean ionic charge due to the imbalance between the 
number of electrons and ions. Here we derive an expression for the high-energy tail of the ...

23.Finite-size corrections to Fermi's golden rule: I. Decay rates

K Ishikawa, Y Tobita - Progress of Theoretical and …, 2013 -
Abstract A quantum mechanical wave of a finite size moves like a classical particle and 
shows a unique decay probability. Because the wave function evolves according to the 
Schrödinger equation, it preserves the total energy but not the kinetic energy in the ...

24.TETRA observation of gamma‐rays at ground level associated with nearby thunderstorms

R Ringuette, GL Case, ML Cherry… - Journal of …, 2013 - Wiley Online Library
Abstract [1] Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs)—very short, intense bursts of electrons, 
positrons, and energetic photons originating from terrestrial thunderstorms—have been 
detected with satellite instruments. TGF and Energetic Thunderstorm Rooftop Array ( ...

25.[PDF] Об усилении потока фотоядерных нейтронов в грозовой атмосфере и возможности его регистрации

ЛП Бабич, ЕИ Бочков, АН Залялов, ИM Куцык - Письма в ЖЭТФ, 2013 -
Анализируется достоверность сообщений о регистрации усиления потока нейтронов в 
грозовой атмосфере. Анализ мотивирован тем, что используемые газоразрядные 
счетчики на основе реакций 3He (n, p) 3H и 10B (n; 4He, γ) 7Li детектируют не только ...

26.The continuous detection of gamma (X-ray) spectra registered during atmospheric precipitations

AV Germanenko, YV Balabin… - Journal of Physics: …, 2013 -
Abstract: Monitoring of a gamma radiation in a ground atmosphere layer has revealed systematic increases during precipitations (rains, snowfalls). We have designed the instrument for the continuous detecting of differential spectra of a gamma radiation on the ...

 27Fundamental Processes Capable of Accounting for the Neutron Flux Enhancements in a Thunderstorm Atmosphere 
L. P. Babich

Abstract:Elementary processes capable of producing neutrons in a thunderstorm atmosphere are analyzed. The efficiency of nuclear fusion 2H(2H, n)n 3He, photonuclear reactions (γ, Xn), electrodisintegration reactions , and reactions e–(p+, n)νe opposite to the βdecay is evaluated. It is shown that an unrealistically strong electric field is required for the nuclear fusion to be responsible for the neutron production in the lightning channel. The generation of neutrons in a thunderstorm atmosphere is connected with photonuclear (γ, Xn) and, at a much lower degree, electrodisintegration reactions, the relativistic runaway electron avalanches being primary parent processes.

Alexander Nestler 1, Matthias Huss 1,2,*, Rouben Ambartzumian 3 and Artak Hambarian 4
Published: 2 July 2014
Abstract: Snow is an excellent water reservoir, naturally storing large quantities of water at time scales from a few days to several months. In summer-dry countries, like Armenia, runoff due to snow melt from mountain regions is highly important for a sustained water supply (irrigation, hydropower). Snow fields on Mount Aragats, Armenia’s highest peak, often persist until July, providing vital amounts of melt water. Artificially managing these wind-driven snow accumulations as a natural water reservoir might have considerable potential. In the context of the Swiss-Armenian joint venture, Freezwater, snow fields are covered with geotextiles in order to delay snow melt long enough to provide additional melt water in the dry season of the year... 

Steven A. Cummer,1  Michael S. Briggs,2  Joseph R. Dwyer,3  Shaolin Xiong,2  Valerie Connaughton,2  Gerald J. Fishman,4  Gaopeng Lu,5,6  Fanchao Lyu,1  Rahulkumar Solanki1 ... 2014 American Geophysical Union                                                                                                                                                                        
Abstract: Many details of how thunderstorms generate terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) and other forms of high energy radiation remain uncertain, including the basic question of where they are produced. 

Gabriel Sousa Diniz

Authors: Gabriel Sousa Diniz

Abstract: Thunderstorms are the starting point of several intense phenomena such as gamma rays and X rays, neutron, positron and electron emissions. The X rays and gamma rays have energies that may reach 100 MeV. The neutron emissions may be created by energetic gamma ray photons interacting with the air via Giant Dipole Resonance, a photonuclear reaction, related to thunderstorms and lightning in a way that is not completely understood yet. In this work neutrons were assumed to be created by gamma ray photons in the energy range of 10-30 MeV emitted by leader discharges. Their production and propagation toward the ground were investigated using computer simulations....

Authors: A. V. Germanenko, Yu. V. Balabin. E. V. Vashenyuk, B. B. Gvozdevsky, and L. I. Schur

Abstract: . Increases in intensity of X-radiation in the ground layer of the atmosphere observed during various atmospheric phenomena in two points: Apatity (Kola Peninsula) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. A clear relationship between the increases and such atmospheric phenomena as rain and snowfall has been found. It is shown that these increases are not connected with any radionuclides. This research suggests that the principal cause of high-energy photons increase during precipitations are bremsstrahlung X−rays created by energetic electrons accelerated by electric fields in the clouds....

H. Tsuchiya,1,2 T. Enoto,2,3 K. Iwata,4 S. Yamada,2 T. Yuasa,5 T. Kitaguchi,2 M. Kawaharada,5 K. Nakazawa,M. Kokubun,5 H. Kato,2 M. Okano,2 T. Tamagawa,2 and K. Makishima...PHYSICAL REVIEW, 2013

Abstract: We report the first observation of 3–30 MeV prolonged gamma-ray emission that was abruptly terminated by lightning. The gamma-ray detection was made during winter thunderstorms on December 30, 2010, by the Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds experiment carried out in a coastal area along the Sea of Japan. The gamma-ray flux lasted for less than 3 min, continuously hardening closer to the lightning occurrence... 

Authors: Joseph R. Dwyer1, David M. Smith2, Bryna J. Hazelton3, Vrian W. Grefenstette4, Nicole A. Kelley5, Alexander W. Lowell5, Meagan M. Grefenstette4, Meagan M. Schaal6 and Hamid K. Rassoul7

Abstract: We report the observation of two isolated clouds of positrons inside an active thunderstorm. These observations were made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions( ADELE), an array of six gamma-ray detectors, which flew on a Gulfstream V jet aircraft through the top of an active thunderstorm in August 2009. ADELE recorded two 511 keV gamma-ray count rate enhancments, 35 seconds apart, each lasting approximately 0,2 seconds...

Authors: V.V. AlekseenkoaD, M. GromushkinbD, D. DzhappuevB, A. U, KudjaevB, O. I. Michailovaa, Yu. V. Stenkinab, V. I. StepanovB, O. B. ShchegolevB, V. P. Sulakovc and I. I. Yashinb

Abstract: The results from the registration and analysis of sporadic variations of atmospheric thermal neutron flux during thunderstorms  are reported. Measurments were performed in Moscow and at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory of the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The neutron flux was detected by unscreened scintillation endetectors based on 6LiF + ZnS (Ag) compound... 

Authors: V. Alekseenko1, F. Arneodo2, G. Bruno3*, A. Di Giovanni2, W. Fulgione 3,4, D. Gromushkin5, O. Shchegolev6, Yu. Stenkin5,6, V. Stepanov6, V. Sulakov7 and I. Yashin5

Abstract: The production of MeV neutrons during thunderstorms has been the subject of several papers. The first suggestion to our knowledge, of the existence of this phenomenon appeared in Ref. [1]. More recently, some experimental papers have been published regarding neutron detection during thunderstorms at Mt. Aragats[2]...

Authors: A.V. Gurevich, V.P. Antonova, A.P. Chubenko, A.N. Karashtin, O.N. Kryakunova, V.Yu. Lutsenko, G.G. Mitko, V.V. Piskal, M.O. Ptitsyn, V.A. Ryabov, A.L. Shepetov, Yu.V. Shlyugaev, W.M. Thu, L.I. Vildanova, K.P. Zybin

Abstract: The time structure of neutron count rate enhancement during thunderstorm is studied. The enhancements take place during the time of atmospheric discharge. Significant part of neutrons are emitted in short bursts (200-400 µs). Sometimes the emission is well correlated over the space scale 1 km. Short burst width allows to suppose that neutrons are generated mainly in a dense medium (probably soil).

Authors: Zhou Xiu-Xlu1, Wang Xin-Jian1, Huang Dai- Hui1, Wu Chao-Yong2

Abstract: Concident study on the intensity change of the ground cosmic rays during thunderstorms is very important for understanding the acceleration mechanism of secondary charged particles caused by atmospheric electric field. It is found, that tyhe strength of the near earth thunderstorm electric field can be up to 1000V/cm or even higher from ARGO-YBJ (where YBJ stands for YAMBAJAN, 4300m a.s.l., Tibet, China) data in 2012...

Authors: Xinjian Wang 1, Xunxiu Zhou 1, Daihui Huang 1, Huanyu Jia 1

Abstract: It has been found that most of the near-earth thunderstorms electric field strength at YBJ (4300 m a.s.l., Tibet, China) is within the range of 1000 V/cm according to the ARGO-YBJ experiment. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed by using CORSIKA to study the intensity change of the ground cosmic rays in near-earth thunderstorms electric field. We found that the number of electrons in secondary particles at YBJ was changed with the strength and polarity of the electric field. In the negative field, the number increases with the increasing electric field...

Authors: Daihui Huang, Xinjian Wang, Xunxiu Zhou , Huanyu Jia

Abstract: Studies on energy changes of cosmic ray electron in thunderstorms electric field are very important to understand the acceleration mechanism of secondary charged particles caused by electric field. In this paper, Monte Carlo simulations were performed with CORSIKA to study the energy of cosmic ray electron in two typical electric fields. One is upper than the threshold field strength resulting in a runaway breakdown process (i.e. the order of 1 kV/cm), the other is lower than that (i.e. the order of 0.1 kV/cm). 

Authors: Karel Kudela , Jan Błecki 

Abstract: The main scientific task of JEM-EUSO is to observe the ultra high energy cosmic rays by looking the atmosphere from space [1, 2, 3, 4]. The detailed description of various sources of the background is important. On the other hand, the study of selected magnetospheric, ionospheric and atmospheric processes related to temporal and spatial variability of UV (ultraviolet) on the orbit where JEM-EUSO is supposed to be situated, could be a useful by-product of the main task of the project (e.g. review [5]). 

Authors: Nicole A. Kelley1 , David M. Smith2, Joseph R. Dwyer3, Michael Splitt4, Steven Lazarus4, Forest Martinez-McKinney2, Bryna Hazelton5, Brian Grefenstette6, Alexander Lowell1 & Hamid K. Rassoul7

Abstract: Gamma-ray ‘glows’ are long duration (seconds to tens of minutes) X-ray and gamma-ray emission coming from thunderclouds. Measurements suggest the presence of relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA), the same process underlying terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Here we demonstrate that glows are relatively a common phenomena near the tops of thunderstorms, when compared with events such as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes. Examining the strongest glow measured by the airborne detector for energetic emissions, we show that this glow is measured near the end of a downward RREA, consistent with occurring between the upper positive charge layer and the negative screening layer above it...

Authors: Devendraa Siingh a,n,1 , R.P. Singh b,1 , Sarvan Kumar b , T. Dharmaraj a , Abhay K. Singh b , Ashok K. Singh c , M.N. Patil a , Shubha Singh d

Abstract: Recent development in lightning discharges including transient luminous events (TLEs) and global electric circuit are discussed. Role of solar activity, convective available potential energy, surface temperature and difference of land–ocean surfaces on convection process are discussed. Different processes of discharge initiation are discussed. Events like sprites and halos are caused by the upward quasielectrostatic fields associated with intense cloud-to-ground discharges while jets (blue starter, blue jet, gigantic jet) are caused by charge imbalance in thunderstorm during lightning discharges but they are not associated with a particular discharge flash. Elves are generated by the electromagnetic pulse radiated during lightning discharges. The present understanding of global electric circuit is also reviewed. Relation between lightning activity/global electric circuit and climate is discussed...

Authors: L. P. Babich*

Abstract: A recently reported laboratory experiment with a high-voltage long discharge in the open atmosphere producing neutrons “ . . . up to energies above 10 MeV . . . ” [Agafonov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 115003 (2013)] is critically analyzed. Known elementary processes, namely, nuclear synthesis 2 H( 2 H ,n) 3 He and 2 H( 14N ,n) 15O, photonuclear, electrodisintegration n mA(e−,n) n−1 m A and opposite to the β-decay e−(p+,n)νe reactions, as well as unconventional mechanisms and the hypothetical increase in the nuclear synthesis cross sections are not capable of accounting for the neutron generation under conditions of the experiment analyzed. In particular, total energy yields of reactions 2 H( 2 H ,n) 3 He and 2 H( 14N ,n) 15O are less than the claimed neutron energy above 10 MeV...

Authors: T. N. G. Trinh,1, ∗ O. Scholten,1, 2 S. Buitink,3, 4 A. M. van den Berg,1 A. Corstanje,4 U. Ebert,5, 6 J. E. Enriquez,4 H. Falcke,4, 7, 8, 9 J. R. H¨orandel,4, 7 C. K¨ohn,10 A. Nelles,4, 11 J. P. Rachen,4 L. Rossetto,4 C. Rutjes,5 P. Schellart,4 S. Thoudam,4 S. ter Veen,4 and K.D. de Vries2

Abstract: The atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds have been shown to significantly modify the intensity and polarization patterns of the radio footprint of cosmic-ray-induced extensive air showers. Simulations indicated a very non-linear dependence of the signal strength in the frequency window of 30-80 MHz on the magnitude of the atmospheric electric field. In this work we present an explanation of this dependence based on Monte-Carlo simulations, supported by arguments based on electron dynamics in air showers and expressed in terms of a simplified model. We show that by extending the frequency window to lower frequencies additional sensitivity to the atmospheric electric field is obtained.

Authors: Kevin Jourde1, DominiqueGibert2,3, Jacques Marteau4, Jean de Bremond d’Ars2, SergeGardien4, ClaudeGirerd4 & Jean-Christophe Ianigro4

Abstract: Usage of secondary cosmic muons to image the geological structures density distribution significantly developed during the past ten years. Recent applications demonstrate the method interest to monitor magma ascent and volcanic gas movements inside volcanoes. Muon radiography could be used to monitor density variations in aquifers and the critical zone in the near surface. However, the time resolution achievable by muon radiography monitoring remains poorly studied. It is biased by fluctuation sources exterior to the target, and statistically affected by the limited number of particles detected during the experiment. The present study documents these two issues within a simple and well constrained experimental context: a water tower. We use the data to discuss the influence of atmospheric variability that perturbs the signal, and propose correction formulas to extract the muon flux variations related to the water level changes...

Abstract: We are happy to announce the launch of the EGU – Solar Terrestrial division blogs together with other social media webpages where you can get in touch with us. This is run by a group of enthusiatic volunteers, Koen Hendrickx (Stockholm University, Sweden), Kamalam Vanninathan (University of Graz, Austria) and the editor Athanasios Papaioannou (National Observatory of Athens, Greece)....

Authors: R.U. Abbasi a, M. Abe b, T. Abu-Zayyad a, M. Allen a, R. Anderson a, R. Azuma c, E. Barcikowski a, J.W. Belz a, D.R. Bergman a, S.A. Blake a, R. Cady a, B.G. Cheon e, J. Chiba f , M. Chikawa g, T. Fujii i , M. Fukushima i,j , T. Goto k, W. Hanlon a, Y. Hayashi k, N. Hayashida l , K. Hibino l , K. Honda m, D. Ikeda i , N. Inoue b, T. Ishii m, R. Ishimori c, H. Ito n, D. Ivanov a, C.C.H. Jui a, K. Kadota o, F. Kakimoto c, O. Kalashev p, K. Kasahara q, H. Kawai r , S. Kawakami k, S. Kawana b, K. Kawata i , E. Kido i , H.B. Kim e, J.H. Kim a, J.H. Kim s , S. Kishigami k, S. Kitamura c, Y. Kitamura c, V. Kuzmin p, Y.J. Kwon h, J. Lan a, J.P. Lundquist a, K. Machida m, K. Martens j , T. Matsuda t , T. Matsuyama k, J.N. Matthews a, M. Minamino k, K. Mukai m, I. Myers a, K. Nagasawa b, S. Nagataki n, T. Nakamura u, T. Nonaka i , A. Nozato g, S. Ogio k, J. Ogura c, M. Ohnishi i , H. Ohoka i , K. Oki i , T. Okuda v,∗, M. Ono w, R. Onogi k, A. Oshima x, S. Ozawa q, I.H. Park y, M.S. Pshirkov z,p, D.C. Rodriguez a, , G. Rubtsov p, D. Ryu s , H. Sagawa i , K. Saito i , Y. Saito ae, N. Sakaki i , N. Sakurai k, A.L. Sampson a, L.M. Scott aa, K. Sekino i , P.D. Shah a, F. Shibata m, T. Shibata i , H. Shimodaira i , B.K. Shin k, H.S. Shin i , J.D. Smith a, P. Sokolsky a, R.W. Springer a, B.T. Stokes a, S.R. Stratton a,aa, T.A. Stroman a, T. Suzawa b, M. Takamura f , M. Takeda i , R. Takeishi i , A. Taketa ab, M. Takita i , Y. Tameda l , H. Tanaka k, K. Tanaka ac, M. Tanaka t , S.B. Thomas a, G.B. Thomson a, P. Tinyakov p,ad, I. Tkachev p, H. Tokuno c, T. Tomida ae, S. Troitsky p, Y. Tsunesada k, K. Tsutsumi c, Y. Uchihori af, S. Udo l , F. Urban ad, G. Vasiloff a, T. Wong a, R. Yamane k, H. Yamaoka t , K. Yamazaki ab, J. Yang d, K. Yashiro f , Y. Yoneda k, S. Yoshida r , H. Yoshii ag, R. Zollinger a, Z. Zundel 

Abstract: The Telescope Array (TA) experiment is designed to detect air showers induced by ultra high energy cosmic rays. The TA ground Surface particle Detector (TASD) observed several short-time bursts of air shower like events. These bursts are not likely due to chance coincidence between single shower events. The expectation of chance coincidence is less than 10−4 for five-year’s observation. We checked the correlation between these bursts of events and lightning data, and found evidence for correlations in timing and position. Some features of the burst events are similar to those of a normal cosmic ray air shower, and some are not. On this paper, we report the observed bursts of air shower like events and their correlation with lightning...

Authors: Wei Xu,1 Robert A. Marshall,1 Sebastien Celestin,2 and Victor P. Pasko3

Abstract: Recent ground-based measurements at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) have greatly improved our knowledge of the energetics, fluence, and evolution of X-ray emissions during natural cloud-to-ground (CG) and rocket-triggered lightning flashes. In this paper, using Monte Carlo simulations and the response matrix of unshielded detectors in the Thunderstorm Energetic Radiation Array (TERA), we calculate the energy spectra of X-rays as would be detected by TERA and directly compare with the observational data during event MSE 10-01. The good agreement obtained between TERA measurements and theoretical calculations supports the mechanism of X-ray production by thermal runaway electrons during the negative corona flash stage of stepping lightning leaders...

Authors: Yuval Reuveni a, b, c, , Yoav Yair c, Colin Priced, Gideon Steinitze

Abstract: We report coincidences of ground-level gamma-ray enhancements with precipitation events and strong electric fields typical of thunderstorms, measured at the Emillio Segre Cosmic Ray observatory located on the western slopes of Mt. Hermon in northern Israel. The observatory hosts 2×2 '' NaI (TI) gamma ray scintillation detectors alongside a vertical atmospheric electeric field(Ez) mill and conduction current(Jz) plates. During several active thunderstorms that occured near the Mt. Hermon station in October and November 2015...

Authors: Kudela K. (1,3), Chum J. (2), Kollárik M. (1), Langer R. (1), Strhárský I. (1), Baše J. (2)

Abstract: Since March 2014, there is a continuous measurement of secondary cosmic rays (CRs) by the detector system SEVAN (Space Environmental Viewing and Analysis Network) at Lomnický štít, altitude 2634 masl. Starting from June 2016, the count rates (1s resolution) obtained from the three SEVAN detectors and from their coincidences are available, along with selected meteorological characteristics. Since May 30, 2016 the electric field measurements have been installed at the same site. Several events with clear increase of the count rate in the upper detector of SEVAN were observed during the thunderstorms until September 17, 2016. Examples of these measurements are presented and discussed. Barometric pressure correction and elimination of low frequency variability from the signal allows to extract 2 min averaged increases from the data...

Authors: C. Rutjes1 , G. Diniz2 , I. S. Ferreira2 , and U. Ebert1,3

Abstract: Thunderstorms are known to create terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) which are microsecond-long bursts created by runaway of thermal electrons from propagating lightning leaders, as well as gamma-ray glows that possibly are created by relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA) that can last for minutes or more and are sometimes terminated by a discharge. In this work we predict a new intermediate thunderstorm radiation mechanism, which we call TGF afterglow, as it is caused by the capture of photonuclear neutrons produced by a TGF. TGF afterglows are milliseconds to seconds long; this duration is caused by the thermalization time of the intermediate neutrons. TGF afterglows indicate that the primary TGF has produced photons in the energy range of 10 - 30 MeV; they are nondirectional in contrast to the primary TGF...

Authors: Nigel Dyer1

Abstract: The steam generator that has been developed by Cavitation Energy Systems generates steam whose energy is approximately five time greater than the electrical energy used to generate the steam. This paper proposes that the additional energy comes from the fusion of a minute fraction of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms in the water molecules. The energy for the initial fusion event comes from the accelerating of protons through the large potential differences that occur on the inside of the cavitation bubbles that are critical to the operation of the steam generator. Subsequent fusion events occur as a result of the energy from the initial events being carried to other protons through virtual neutrino exchange...

Authors: K. O. Yurina, F. A. Bogdanova, D. M. Gromushkina, Yu. V. Sten’kina,b, and O. B. Shchegolevb

Absract: The results of measurements of the spectrum of extensive air showers (EASs) by the number of neutrons detected by the PRISMA-32 setup are presented. The neutron component is formed during the interaction of high-energy shower hadrons with nuclei of atmospheric and Earth’s surface atoms. The PRISMA-32 setup consists of 32 en-detectors and operates in the continuous mode for about 5 years...

Authors: L. P. Babich1

Abstract: In view of the neutron flux enhancements observed in thunderstorms, a contribution of thunderstorm neutrons to atmospheric radiocarbon (isotope 14 6 C) production is analyzed in connection with the archaeometry. Herein, estimates of neutron fluence per lightning electromagnetic pulse in regions with severe thunderstorm activity, at which a local rate of the 14 6 C production is comparable to the observed rates, are shown to be consistent with the measured magnitudes of thunderstorm neutron fluence. At present, available observations of atmospheric neutron and parent gamma ray flashes correlated with thunderstorms do not allow making final conclusions about thunderstorm contributions to 14 6 C production. For this, numerous studies of high-energy phenomena in thunderstorms are required, especially in the tropical belt where the thunderstorm activity is especially severe and where the 14 6 C production by galactic cosmic rays is almost independent of the solar activity disturbing the Earth’s magnetic field shielding the Earth from cosmic rays...

Authors: Rutjes, Casper

Abstract: Thunderclouds are meteorological systems where significant electric charge is separated by strong convection. The strong convection brings warm air, which includes water vapor, to great heights. During the ascent into cooler regions, the water vapor condenses and later freezes, releasing all its latent heat. This heat powers the convection further. The ice particles formed at great heights eventually fall down again through the regions of ascending droplets. In these regions, charge is separated between the two opposite moving populations of particles. Much like a balloon rubbed by woolen cloth, charge is transferred on collision from one to the other...

Atmospheric Research
journal homepage:
Ground level gamma-ray and electric eld enhancements during disturbed
weather: Combined signatures from convective clouds, lightning and rain

Authors:Bruno Bartoli, Paolo Bernardini, Xiao-Hui Bi, Zheng Cao

Abstract: Thunderclouds are meterological systems, where significant electric charge is separated by strong convection...

Authors: Y. Wada1,2, G. Bowers3, T. Enoto4, M. Kamogawa5, Y. Nakamura6, T. Morimoto7, D. M. Smith8, Y. Furuta1, K. Nakazawa9, T. Yuasa10, A. Matsuki11, M. Kubo12, T. Tamagawa2, K. Makishima13and H. Tsuchiya14

Abstract: An on-ground observation program for high energy atmospheric phenomena in winter thunderstorms along Japan Sea has been performed via measurements of gamma-ray radiation, atmospheric electric field and low-frequency radio band. On February 11, 2017, the radiation detectors recorded gamma-ray emission lasting for 75 sec. The gamma-ray spectrum extended up to 20 MeV and was reproduced by a cuto power-law model with a photon index of 1.36+0.03 0.04, being consistent with a Bremsstrahlung radiation from a thundercloud (as known as a gamma-ray glow and a thunderstorm ground enhancement). Then the gamma-ray glow was abruptly terminated with a nearby lightning discharge...

Authors: L. P. Babich

Abstract: Thunderstorms are some of natures most spectacular phenomena. Almost a century ago, it was suggested that the strong electric fields in thunderclouds could accelerate electrons in the atmosphere and induce nuclear reactions1. However, these processes have been difficult to confirm experimentally. On page 481, Enoto et al. 2 report the first conclusive observational evidence for thunderstorms-produced nuclear reactions - with implications for our understanding of Earth's atmosphere and isotopic composition...

Authors: Yuuki Wada,1, 2 Teruaki Enoto,3 Yoshihiro Furuta,4 Kazuhiro Nakazawa,5 Takayuki Yuasa,6 Takahiro Matsumoto,1 Daigo Umemoto,7 Kazuo makishima,2, 1, 8 Harufumi Tsuchiya,9 and the GROWTH collaboration

Abstract: The Gamma-Ray Observation of Winter Thunderclouds (GROWTH) collaboration has been performing observation campaigns of high-energy radiation in coastal areas of Japan Sea. Winter thunderstorms in Japan have unique characteristics such as frequent positive-polarity discharges, large discharge current, and low cloud bases. These features allow us to observe both long-duration gamma-ray bursts and lightning-triggered short-duration bursts at sea level. In 2015, we started a mapping observation project using multiple detectors at several new observation sites. We have developed brand-new portable gamma-ray detectors and deployed in the Kanazawa and Komatsu areas as well as the existing site at Kashiwazaki. During three winter seasons from 2015, we have detected 27 long-duration bursts and 8 short-duration bursts...

Authors: G. Diniz1,2, C. Rutjes2 , U. Ebert2,3, I.S. Ferreira1

Abstract: Cold electron run-away means that free electrons in gases are accelerated from eV energies to energies above tens of keV by electric fields where they can be accelerated further. To run away, the electrons need to overcome a barrier at intermediate energies where they can lose much energy in collisions. When they have reached the run-away regime, they can produce high energy radiation by bremsstrahlung that can be detected as (terrestrial) gamma-ray flashes. When can thermal electrons from active discharges like streamers and leaders reach the run-away regime? The deterministic approach to this question is based on an energy dependent electron friction that has to be overcome by electric acceleration...

Authors: Jianyong Cen, Qiang Hou, Ping Yuan, Jinjun Zhang, Minna Sun, Junxing Pan, and Zengli Cao

Abstract: The time-resolved spectrum of a lightning stepped leader in downward process has been obtained by using a slitless spectrograph. Neutral oxygen and nitrogen spectral lines in the near infrared region are observed in the spectra. The electron density of the lightning stepped leader was calculated by using the Stark broadening of the oxygen spectral lines at 777.4 and 844.6 nm. The evolution characteristic of the electron density with time and channel height of the lightning stepped leader was analysed. The results shown that the electron density of the lightning stepped leader was in the order of 1018 cm-3...

Authors: X.X. Zhou , X.J. Wang, D.H. Huang, H.Y. Jia

Abstract: Monte Carlo simulations are performed to study the correlation between the ground cosmic ray intensity and near-earth thunderstorms electric field at YBJ (located at YangBaJing, Tibet, China, 4300 m a. s. l.). The variations of the secondary cosmic ray intensity are found to be highly dependent on the strength and polarity of the electric field. In negative fields and in positive fields greater than 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons increases with increasing electric field strength. And these values increase more obviously when involving a shower with lower primary energy or a higher zenith angle. While in positive fields ranging from 0 to 600 V/cm, the total number of ground comic ray positrons and electrons declines and the amplitude is up to 3.1% for vertical showers. A decrease of intensity occurs in inclined showers within the range of 0−500 V/cm, which is accompanied by smaller amplitudes. In this paper, the intensity changes are analyzed, especially concerning those decreasing phenomena in positive electric fields...

Authors: Y. Wada 1,2, G. S. Bowers2, T. Enoto4, M. Kamogawa5, Y. Nakamura6, T. Morimoto7, D. M. Smith8, Y. Furuta1, K. Nakazawa9, A. Matsuki11, M. Kubo12, T. Tamagawa2, K. Makishima13, and H. Tcuchiya14

Abstract: An on-ground observation program for high - energy atmospheric phenomena in winter thunderstorms along the Japan Sea has been performed via measurements of gamma ray radiation, atmospheric electric field, and low- frequency radio band. On 11 February 2017, the radiation detectors recorded gamma ray emission lasting for 75 s, and then abruptly terminated with a nearby lightning discharge...

Authors:  Rakesh K. Pandey, Yajuan Sun, Hideyuki Nakanishi, and Siowling Soh

Abstract: Surface of almost all types of materials are often charged easily by contact electrification or deposition of ions; surface charge is ubiquitous and has a vast range of influences in our lives and in industry...

Authors: Manoj Kumar Paras1 and Pooja Rani2

Abstract: Lightning discharge is a spectacular, luminous and one of the most dangerous short lived phenomenon which occurs in the Earth's atmosphere ranging from troposphere to the lower ionosphere...

64. Characterizing Upward Lightning With and Without a Terrestrial Gamma Ray Flash

Authors: D. M. Smith1, G. S. Bowers2, M. Kamogawa3, D. Wang4, T. Ushio5, J. Ortberg1, J. R. Dwyer6, and M. Stock

Abstract: We compare two observations of gamma rays before, during, and after lightning flashes initiated by upward leaders from a tower during low- altitude winter thunderstorms on the western coast of Honshu, Japan,. While the two leaders appear similar, one produced a terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF) so bright that it paralyzed the gamma ray detectors while it was occuring and could be observed only via the weaker flux of neutrons created in its wake, while the other produced no detectable TGF gamma rays at all...

65. Hige-energy photos connected to atmospheric precipitations

Authors: A. V. Germanenko, Yu. V. Balabin. E. V. Vashenyuk, B. B. Gvozdevsky, and L. I. Schur

Abstract: . Increases in intensity of X-radiation in the ground layer of the atmosphere observed during various atmospheric phenomena in two points: Apatity (Kola Peninsula) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. A clear relationship between the increases and such atmospheric phenomena as rain and snowfall has been found. It is shown that these increases are not connected with any radionuclides. This research suggests that the principal cause of high-energy photons increase during precipitations are bremsstrahlung X−rays created by energetic electrons accelerated by electric fields in the clouds....

Authors: Thomas J. Kutter

Abstract: An array of 1600 water Cherenkov detectors (WCDs) will form the bachbone of the Pierre Auger Observatory whose goal is to investigate the nature and origin of cosmic rays with primary energies above 10 19 eV. The detection of extensive air showers (EAS) by means of Chewrenkov light produced in water filled tanks is a technigue...

Authors: Gabriel Sousa Diniz

Abstract: Thunderstorms are the starting point of several intense phenomena such as gamma rays and X rays, neutron, positron and electron emissions. The X rays and gamma rays have energies that may reach 100 MeV. The neutron emissions may be created by energetic gamma ray photons interacting with the air via Giant Dipole Resonance, a photonuclear reaction, related to thunderstorms and lightning in a way that is not completely understood yet. In this work neutrons were assumed to be created by gamma ray photons in the energy range of 10-30 MeV emitted by leader discharges.